InDesign CC provides access to other Adobe resources. Many of these services within InDesign CC involve additional paid services, in which Adobe collects additional fees beyond the monthly license for the CC apps. These include Adobe Stock which, for additional fees, provides access to images. Similarly, fonts from Typekit are available for additional fees beyond the cost of InDesign.
InDesign is the successor to Adobe PageMaker, which was acquired by Adobe with the purchase of Aldus in late 1994. (Freehand, a competitor to Adobe Illustrator and also made by Aldus, was sold to Altsys, the maker of Fontographer.) By 1998 PageMaker had lost almost the entire professional market to the comparatively feature-rich QuarkXPress 3.3, released in 1992, and 4.0, released in 1996. Quark stated its intention to buy out Adobe and to divest the combined company of PageMaker to avoid anti-trust issues.
Earlier versions of the app used the CS designation, which represented Creative Suite. InDesign CC is subscription-based, requiring a monthly or annual fee, while InDesign CS was available as a perpetual license which could be purchased and used forever with a one-time fee. Many of the same features necessary for working on projects are present in both the CC and CS versions of InDesign. While InDesign CS is no longer supported by Adobe Systems, it can still be used for many projects on Mac OS and Windows computers. While InDesign CC may not have received significant updates since the creative suite versions, related Adobe apps have been updated considerably. Users subscribing to the entire Creative Cloud for other applications can access InDesign CC as it is included. InDesign CC is useful if using the most current Windows operating systems.
If you require independent validation of your Adobe InDesign expertise and capabilities for a job or project, American Graphics Institute offers an independent InDesign certification exam. Because American Graphics Institute is widely-recognized as an authority in the field of digital design, an InDesign Certification provides a credential that shows a mastery of InDesign skills. This exam is a multiple-choice test which is completed online. The exam generally takes 45 minutes to one hour to complete. The InDesign certification exam tests familiarity with InDesign's user interface, basic document creation, core capabilities and functionalities, saving and exporting InDesign projects, and an understanding of workflow issues. There is no requirement to take a course prior to taking an InDesign certification exam.
The first version of InDesign was released on August 31, 1999. The program began development long before this, with a different company known as Aldus that was based in Seattle and created desktop publishing software. Aldus developed some of the first graphics and desktop publishing programs available for personal computers that were running early versions of the Windows and Mac operating systems. These included applications such as Superpaint and PageMaker. The first version of PageMaker was released by Aldus July 1985 and it provided a simplified graphical user interface that fit the Macintosh point-and-click user experience. PageMaker became popular for early desktop publishing use as a result. At the company's height in 1990, PageMaker 4.0 hit the market and was considered advanced for its time, although it was starting to see competition from Quark, Inc., a smaller startup based in Denver who produced the electronic publishing software application QuarkXPress.
In its first versions, the CDR file format was a completely proprietary file format primarily used for vector graphic drawings, recognizable by the first two bytes of the file being "WL". Starting with CorelDraw 3, the file format changed to a Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF) envelope, recognizable by the first four bytes of the file being "RIFF", and a "CDR*vrsn" in bytes 9 to 15, with the asterisk "*" being just a blank in early versions. Beginning with CorelDraw 4 it included the version number of the writing program in hexadecimal ("4" meaning version 4, "D" meaning version 14). The actual data chunk of the RIFF remains a Corel proprietary format. sequential numbering in word